缃戠粶杩滅▼鏁欒偛

缃戠粶杩滅▼鏁欒偛鏄殢鐫€淇℃伅鎶€鏈殑鍙戝睍鑰屼骇鐢熺殑涓€绉嶅绉嶅獟浣撲紭鍖栫粍鍚堢殑鏁欒偛鏂瑰紡銆?

瀹冮€氳繃闊抽銆佽棰戯紙鐩存挱鎴栧綍鍍忥級浠ュ強鍖呮嫭瀹炴椂鍜岄潪瀹炴椂鍦ㄥ唴鐨勮绠楁満鎶€鏈紝鎶婅绋嬩紶閫佺粰鏍″洯澶栫殑涓€澶勬垨澶氬瀛︾敓锛屼娇瀛︿範涓嶅啀鍙楁椂闂淬€佺┖闂寸殑闄愬埗锛屽吋瀹归潰鎺堛€佸嚱鎺堝拰鑷绛変紶缁熸暀瀛﹀舰寮忋€?

蹇€熷鑸?

鍚嶇О
缃戠粶鏁欒偛
瀹氫綅
闈㈠悜骞垮ぇ缇や綋涓斿彲鑳芥椂闂翠笉澶熺殑浜虹兢
瀹氫箟
涓€绉嶆柊椴滅殑鏁欒偛鏂瑰紡
鎰忎箟
鏈夊埄浜庣┖闂寸殑鑺傜渷浠ュ強淇℃伅鐨勫揩閫熶紶鎾?

1鍩烘湰鍐呭

缂栬緫

       缃戠粶杩滅▼鏁欒偛锛堝張绉拌繙绋嬫暀鑲诧級锛屾槸瀛︾敓涓庢暀甯堛€佸鐢熶笌鏁欒偛缁勭粐涔嬮棿涓昏閲囧彇澶氱濯掍綋鏂瑰紡杩涜绯荤粺鏁欏鐨勫涔犳ā寮忥紝瀹冨吋瀹归潰鎺堛€佸嚱鎺堝拰鑷绛変紶缁熸暀瀛﹀舰寮忋€?

       缃戠粶鏁欒偛渚濇墭鐜颁唬淇℃伅鎶€鏈殑鍙戝睍锛岄€氳繃闊抽銆佽棰戯紙鐩存挱鎴栧綍鍍忥級浠ュ強鍖呮嫭瀹炴椂鍜岄潪瀹炴椂鍦ㄥ唴鐨勮绠楁満鎶€鏈妸璇剧▼浼犻€佺粰鏍″洯澶栫殑涓€澶勬垨澶氬瀛︾敓锛屼娇瀛︿範涓嶅啀鍙楁椂闂淬€佺┖闂寸殑闄愬埗銆?

       缃戠粶鏁欒偛鏄湇鍔″璞′竴鑸负鍗佸叓鍛ㄥ瞾浠ヤ笂鐨勭ぞ浼氬湪鑱屼汉鍛橈紝涓昏鎻愪緵楂樹腑璧风偣涓撶銆侀珮涓捣鐐规湰绉戙€佷笓绉戣捣鐐规湰绉戝強鏈绗簩瀛﹀巻鏁欒偛銆?

       瀛﹀憳鍙互閫氳繃鐩稿叧鑰冭瘯锛岃揪鍒版瘯涓氳姹傦紝棰佸彂涓诲姙楂樻牎姣曚笟璇佷功锛堟敞鏄庘€滅綉缁滄暀鑲测€濆瓧鏍凤級锛屾暀鑲查儴鐢靛瓙澶囨锛?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=66845276&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鍥藉鎵胯瀛﹀巻銆傛湰绉戠鍚堟潯浠讹紝鍙鍙?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=50147879&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鎴愪汉楂樼瓑鏁欒偛瀛﹀+瀛︿綅璇佷功銆?span style="font-size:1em;font-weight:700;">   

2鏁欒偛璧锋簮

缂栬緫

缃戠粶鏁欒偛闈╁懡鏄敱姣曚笟浜?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=968154&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">楹荤渷鐞嗗伐瀛﹂櫌鐨勫瓱鍔犳媺瑁旂編鍥戒汉钀ㄥ皵鏇悸峰彲姹?/a>鍙戣捣鐨勶紝浠栧垱鍔炵殑鈥?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=34483026&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鍙睏瀛﹂櫌鈥濆紑璁句簡3500澶氶棬璇撅紝鍚戝叏涓栫晫鍏嶈垂鎻愪緵楂樺搧璐ㄦ暀鑲层€備豢鐓р€滃彲姹楀闄⑩€濈殑妯″紡锛屼袱涓?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=527469&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鏂潶绂忓ぇ瀛?/a>鏁欐巿涔熸垚绔嬩簡涓€涓悕鍙獵oursera鐨勬暀鑲叉満鏋勶紝骞惰仈鍚?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=80713&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鏅灄鏂】澶у銆?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=7710182&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鍔犲窞鐞嗗伐瀛﹂櫌銆?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=87119&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">闇嶆櫘閲戞柉澶у绛?2鎵€澶у寮€濮嬪ぇ瑙勬ā鐨勬柊鍨嬬綉缁滄暀鑲茶瘯楠屻€傞夯鐪佺悊宸ュ闄㈠拰鍝堜經澶у涔熷悇鎶曡祫3鍗冧竾缇庡厓寮€鎷撹繖绉嶆柊鍨嬬綉缁滄暀鑲层€備粬浠彁鍑虹殑鎰挎櫙鏄細璁╀换浣曚汉锛屽湪浠讳綍鍦扮偣銆佷换浣曟椂闂达紝閮借兘寰楀埌涓栫晫涓€娴佺殑鏁欒偛銆傛嵁鐩稿叧璐熻矗浜虹О锛屼粬浠笉浠呭皢鍒╃敤杩欎釜骞冲彴寤虹珛涓€涓簽澶х殑鍏ㄧ悆鎬у湪绾垮涔犵ぞ缇わ紝鑰屼笖灏嗙爺绌舵暀瀛︽柟娉曚笌鎶€鏈€?

3瀛︿範鍐呭

缂栬緫

鐩墠杩滅▼鏁欒偛鎵€鎻愪緵鐨勭綉涓婃暀瀛︿俊鎭紝涓昏鍖呮嫭鏁欏缁勭粐绠$悊淇℃伅銆佽绋嬩俊鎭€佹暀瀛﹀姩鎬併€佽緟瀵间俊鎭€佸拰鍏朵粬鐨勬暀鍔$鐞嗕俊鎭€?

1銆佹暀瀛︾粍缁囩鐞嗕俊鎭寘鎷暀瀛﹁鍒掋€佷笓涓氭暀瀛﹀疄鏂芥柟妗堛€佽绋嬫暀瀛﹁璁℃柟妗堛€佽绋嬩粙缁嶅強鍚勭鏁欏杩囩▼涓殑閫氱煡銆侀€氬憡绛夛紝涓昏鐢ㄤ簬瀵规暀瀛﹁繃绋嬬殑鎬讳綋鎸囧锛屾暀瀛︾殑缁勭粐绠$悊瀹夋帓绛夈€?

2銆佽绋嬩俊鎭€佹暀瀛﹀姩鎬佽緟瀵间俊鎭槸鎸囨寜鐓ф暀瀛﹁繘搴﹁姹傦紝鍙婃椂鎻愪緵缁欏鐢熺殑鏈夐拡瀵规€х殑瀵煎淇℃伅锛屽寘鎷悇绔犺妭鏁欏鍐呭鐨勯噸鐐广€侀毦鐐硅瑙f彁绀猴紝鍚屾鐨勪綔涓氫笌娴嬮獙棰樺拰瑙f瀽绛夈€?

3銆佸叾浠栨暀鍔′俊鎭繕鍖呮嫭鐝骇娲诲姩锛岀綉鏍℃椿鍔ㄧ殑閫氱煡锛屽鐢熷涔犮€佺敓娲诲姩鎬佷粙缁嶇瓑銆?

 

4缃戠粶浼樺娍

缂栬緫

       1銆佺綉缁滄暀鑲叉槸涓€绉嶅熀浜庤绠楁満鎶€鏈€佺綉缁滄妧鏈拰閫氫俊鎶€鏈繘琛岀煡璇嗕紶杈撳拰鐭ヨ瘑瀛︿範鐨勬柊鍨嬫暀鑲叉ā寮忋€傚畠鍙互 浣胯祫婧愬埄鐢ㄦ渶澶у寲銆傜綉缁滄暀鑲蹭笉鍐嶅彈鏍″洯鐨勫眬闄愶紝浣垮緱鍚勭鏁欒偛璧勬簮閫氳繃缃戠粶璺ㄨ秺浜嗙┖闂磋窛绂荤殑闄愬埗锛屾垚涓轰竴绉嶅彲浠ュ悜鏇村箍娉涘湴鍖鸿緪灏勭殑寮€鏀惧紡鏁欒偛銆傚鏍″彲浠ュ厖鍒嗗彂鎸ヨ嚜宸辩殑瀛︾浼樺娍鍜屾暀鑲茶祫婧愪紭鍔匡紝鎶婃渶浼樼鐨勬暀甯堛€佹渶濂界殑鏁欏鎴愭灉閫氳繃缃戠粶浼犳挱鍒板洓闈㈠叓鏂广€?

       2銆佷釜鎬у寲鏁欏銆傜綉缁滄暀鑲蹭腑锛岃繍鐢ㄨ绠楁満缃戠粶鎵€鐗规湁鐨勪俊鎭?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=7749365&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鏁版嵁搴撶鐞?/a>鎶€鏈拰鍙屽悜浜や簰鍔熻兘锛屽彲浠ヨ绯荤粺瀵规瘡涓綉缁滃鍛樼殑涓€ц祫鏂欍€佸涔犺繃绋嬪拰闃舵鎯呭喌绛夊彲浠ュ疄鐜板畬鏁寸殑绯荤粺璺熻釜璁板綍銆傚悓鏃舵暀瀛﹀拰瀛︿範鏈嶅姟绯荤粺鍙牴鎹郴缁熻褰曠殑涓汉璧勬枡锛岄拡瀵逛笉鍚屽鍛樻彁鍑轰釜鎬у寲瀛︿範寤鸿銆傜綉缁滄暀鑲茶涓€у寲鏁欏鏈変簡鐜板疄鏈夋晥鐨勫疄鐜伴€斿緞銆?

       3銆佽嚜涓诲寲瀛︿範銆傜綉缁滄妧鏈簲鐢ㄤ簬杩滅▼鏁欒偛锛屼娇寰楀鐢熶笉鍐嶅彈鏃堕棿銆佸湴鐐广€佽绋嬭繘搴︾瓑褰卞搷锛屽湪瀛︿範妯″紡涓婃渶鐩存帴浣撶幇浜嗕富鍔ㄥ涔犵殑鐗圭偣锛屽厖鍒嗘弧瓒充簡鐜颁唬鏁欒偛鍜岀粓韬暀鑲茬殑闇€姹傘€傝€屼笖鏁欏笀涓庡鐢熴€佸鐢熶笌瀛︾敓涔嬮棿锛屽彲浠ラ€氳繃缃戠粶杩涜鍏ㄦ柟浣嶇殑浜ゆ祦锛屽垱閫犱簡涓€涓洿涓轰究鎹风殑娌熼€氬钩鍙般€傝€岃绠楁満瀵瑰鐢熸彁闂被鍨嬨€佷汉鏁般€佹鏁扮瓑杩涜鐨勭粺璁″垎鏋愶紝浣挎暀甯堜簡瑙e鐢熷湪瀛︿範涓亣鍒扮殑鐤戠偣銆侀毦鐐瑰拰涓昏闂锛屼篃鍙互鏇村姞鏈夐拡瀵规€у湴鎸囧瀛︾敓銆?

       4銆?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=264793&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">瀛﹀垎鍒?/a>璁╁鍛樺皯鍙楅檺鍒躲€傚鍘嗘暀鑲茬殑瀛﹀垎鏈夋晥鏈熷拰淇笟骞撮檺鐢卞鏍℃牴鎹湁鍏虫硶瑙勫喅瀹氥€?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=709607&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">缃戠粶鏁欒偛瀛﹂櫌鍙互閫氳繃鍥藉缁熶竴鐨勮€冭瘯鏉ュ綍鍙栧鐢燂紝涔熷彲鑷缁勭粐鑰冭瘯褰曞彇瀛︾敓锛屾嫑鐢熷舰寮忓拰鍏ュ鏍囧噯鐢辫瘯鐐归珮鏍¤嚜琛岃瀹氥€傚洜姝わ紝缃戠粶鏁欒偛瀛﹂櫌涓€骞村唴鍙互鏈夊嚑鎵规瘯涓氱敓銆?

       5銆佹洿鑺傜渷鎴愭湰銆傜綉缁滄暀鑲蹭篃璁╂暀鑲叉湇鍔℃満鏋勮兘澶熷埄鐢ㄤ簰鑱旂綉骞冲彴杩涜鏁欏锛屼粠鑰屽ぇ骞呭噺灏戜簡绱Н鎴愭湰锛岃€岃繖浜涜垂鐢ㄥ彲浠ョ敤鍦ㄤ负瀛︾敓鎻愪緵鏇村ソ鎬т环姣旂殑瀛︿範涓婏紝姣斿鎷涘嫙鏇村鐨勬巿璇炬暀甯堜互鍙婁娇鐢ㄦ洿澶氭暀瀛﹁澶囷紝姣斿鍑忎綆瀛︾敓鐨勮垂鐢ㄣ€?

       6銆佹暀瀛︾鐞嗚嚜鍔ㄥ寲銆傝绠楁満缃戠粶鐨勬暀瀛︾鐞嗗钩鍙板叿鏈夎嚜鍔ㄧ鐞嗗拰杩滅▼浜掑姩澶勭悊鍔熻兘锛岃搴旂敤浜庣綉缁滄暀鑲茬殑鏁欏绠$悊涓€傝繙绋嬪鐢熺殑鍜ㄨ銆佹姤鍚嶃€佷氦璐广€侀€夎銆佹煡璇€佸绫嶇鐞嗐€佷綔涓氫笌鑰冭瘯绠$悊绛夛紝閮藉彲浠ラ€氳繃缃戠粶杩滅▼浜や簰鐨勬柟寮忓畬鎴愩€?

       68鎵€楂樼瓑瀛︽牎锛堝叏鍥藉彧鏈?8鎵€楂樻牎鎵嶆湁璧勬牸棰佸彂缃戠粶鏁欒偛鍥藉鎵胯鐨勬枃鍑級

       鍖椾含澶у   涓浗浜烘皯澶у   娓呭崕澶у   鍖椾含浜ら€氬ぇ瀛?/a>   鍖椾含鑸┖鑸ぉ澶у   鍖椾含鐞嗗伐澶у  鍖椾含绉戞妧澶у   鍖椾含閭數澶у   涓浗鍐滀笟澶у   鍖椾含涓尰鑽ぇ瀛?/a>   鍖椾含甯堣寖澶у   鍖椾含澶栧浗璇ぇ瀛?/a>   鍖椾含璇█澶у   涓浗浼犲獟澶у   瀵瑰缁忔祹璐告槗澶у   涓浗绉戝鎶€鏈ぇ瀛?/a>   涓ぎ闊充箰瀛﹂櫌   鍗楀紑澶у   澶╂触澶у   澶ц繛鐞嗗伐澶у   涓滃寳澶у   涓浗鍖荤澶у   涓滃寳璐㈢粡澶у   鍚夋灄澶у  涓滃寳甯堣寖澶у   鍝堝皵婊ㄥ伐涓氬ぇ瀛?/a>   涓滃寳鍐滀笟澶у   澶嶆棪澶у   涓婃捣浜ら€氬ぇ瀛?/a>(鍚尰瀛﹂櫌)  鍗庝笢鐞嗗伐澶у  涓滃崕澶у   鍗庝笢甯堣寖澶у   涓婃捣澶栧浗璇ぇ瀛?/a>   鍗椾含澶у   涓滃崡澶у   姹熷崡澶у  娴欐睙澶у   鍘﹂棬澶у   绂忓缓甯堣寖澶у  灞变笢澶у  涓浗鐭虫补澶у(鍗庝笢)  閮戝窞澶у 姝︽眽澶у   鍗庝腑绉戞妧澶у   姝︽眽鐞嗗伐澶у   鍗庝腑甯堣寖澶у   涓浗鍦拌川澶у(姝︽眽)   婀栧崡澶у  涓崡澶у   涓北澶у   鍗庡崡鐞嗗伐澶у   鍗庡崡甯堣寖澶у   鍥涘窛澶у   閲嶅簡澶у  瑗垮崡浜ら€氬ぇ瀛?/a>   鐢靛瓙绉戞妧澶у   瑗垮崡绉戞妧澶у   鍥涘窛鍐滀笟澶у   瑗垮崡澶у   瑗垮崡璐㈢粡澶у  瑗垮畨浜ら€氬ぇ瀛?/a>   瑗垮寳宸ヤ笟澶у   瑗垮畨鐢靛瓙绉戞妧澶у   闄曡タ甯堣寖澶у   涓浗鐭虫补澶у(鍖椾含)    鍏板窞澶у   涓浗鍦拌川澶у(鍖椾含)    涓ぎ骞挎挱鐢佃澶у

5鐩稿叧鍖哄埆

缂栬緫

缃戠粶鏁欒偛鍜屽嚱鎺堝潎灞炰簬鎴愪汉鏁欒偛锛?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=70194594&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鍥芥皯鏁欒偛绯诲垪绗簩瀛﹀巻锛屾瘯涓氳瘉涔﹀浗瀹舵壙璁ゃ€佺ぞ浼氳鍙€備簩鑰呭悓鑷鑰冭瘯涓€璧蜂负绀句細浠庝笟浜哄憳銆侀珮鑰冭惤姒滅敓鎻愪緵缁х画鏁欒偛锛岃閭d簺娌℃湁鏈轰細璧板叆澶у鏍¢棬鐨勭泦鍙嬩滑鍦嗕簡澶у姊︽兂銆傜綉缁滄暀鑲插拰鍑芥巿涓や釜涓嶅悓瀛︿範褰㈠紡鏈変粈涔堝尯鍒憿锛?

鍏ュ鏂瑰紡涓嶅悓

缃戠粶鏁欒偛鍜屽嚱鎺堝潎闇€鍙傚姞鍏ュ鑰冭瘯锛屼絾鏄紝缃戠粶鏁欒偛鐢卞鏍¤嚜涓荤粍缁囧叆瀛﹁€冭瘯锛岄毦搴︿笉澶э紱鍑芥巿閫氬父鏄€氳繃鎴愪汉楂樿€冨叆瀛︼紝闅惧害浣庝簬鏅€氶珮鑰冦€備簩鑰呯殑鍏ュ鑰冭瘯涓€鑸€冭鏁板锛屼笉鍚屽眰娆¤€冪殑绉戠洰鐣ユ湁涓嶅悓锛屼笉鍚屽鏍″姞鑰冪殑绉戠洰涔熸湁鎵€涓嶅悓銆?

鍔炲涓讳綋涓嶅悓

缃戠粶鏁欒偛鍔炲璧勬牸楂樻牎鍏ㄥ浗鍙湁68鎵€锛屽潎涓哄浗鍐?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=744971&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">閲嶇偣澶у锛屽笀璧勯泟鍘氾紝鏁欏璁惧鍏堣繘锛屽嚑涔庢墍鏈夊ぇ瀛︺€佸闄€佽亴鎶€鏍$瓑鐨勬垚鏁欐垨缁х画鏁欒偛瀛﹂櫌閮藉彲浠ユ嫑鏀跺嚱鎺堢敓銆?

瀛︿範鏂瑰紡涓嶅悓

缃戠粶鏁欒偛鏄浉瀵逛簬闈㈡巿鏁欒偛鑰屾彁鍑虹殑锛屽鍛橀€氳繃缃戠粶瑙嗛涓婅锛岀綉缁滃湪绾挎矡閫氾紝瀛︿範鏃堕棿鑷敱鏀厤銆佸厖瑁曪紝鍙鏈夌數鑴戝嵆鍙殢鏃朵笂璇撅紝鍗崇綉涓婂涔?鍛ㄦ湯涓嶆剚闈㈡巿锛岄€氳繃鐜囬珮锛屼釜浜鸿寰楁瘮杈冮€傚悎閭d簺鎯虫嬁瀛﹀巻鐨勶紝浣嗘槸瀛﹁垂杈冮珮锛涘嚱鎺堝垯鏄瘡骞撮泦涓笂璇撅紝涓€鑸澘鏄湪鍛ㄦ湯鎴栧瘨鏆戝亣锛屾椂闂寸敱瀛︽牎瀹夋帓锛堟瘡瀛︽湡7鑷?0澶╋級锛岃€佸笀闈㈡巿锛屽嵆骞虫椂鑷+闆嗕腑闈㈡巿锛岄€傚悎鎻愰珮鑳藉姏銆佸涔犵煡璇嗘兂鎷垮鍘嗙殑瀛﹀憳锛岃€冭瘯鐩稿瑕佷弗涓€鐐癸紝瀛﹁垂瀹炴儬浜涖€?

姣曚笟璇佷功涓嶅悓

缃戠粶鏁欒偛姣曚笟璇佷功鐢遍珮鏍¤嚜琛岄鍙戯紝鎶ご涓衡€?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=787336&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鏅€氶珮绛夊鏍?/a>鈥濅笌鍏ㄦ棩鍒舵湁鐐圭浉浼硷紝璇佷功涓婁細娉ㄦ槑鈥滅綉缁滄暀鑲测€濆瓧鏍凤紝姣曚笟璇佺數瀛愭敞鍐屽彿绗?浣嶉€氬父鏄?锛涘嚱鎺堟瘯涓氳瘉鐢卞鏍¢鍙戞暀鑲查儴缁熶竴鍗板埗鐨勶紝鎶ご涓婁负鈥?a class="ed_inner_link" target="_blank" href="https://baike.sogou.com/lemma/ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=8294872&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link">鎴愪汉楂樼瓑鏁欒偛鈥濓紝璇佷功涓婁細娉ㄦ槑鈥滃嚱鎺堚€濓紝姣曚笟璇佺數瀛愭敞鍐岀6浣嶉€氬父涓?銆?